Operational and human factors testing to commission ERTMS in Denmark

Author: Amanda Elliott
Day: Aspect Day Two
Session: Human Factors

On October 21st 2018, the first ERTMS Level 2 BL3 railway was
commissioned in Denmark. It was the culmination of years of
technical design and development. There was also a huge effort
to provide Human Factors (HF) understanding in order to ensure
that the Operational personnel would be ready. Delivery of
ERTMS typically focuses upon overcoming the technical and
interoperability issues, especially with a new Level and Baseline.
However, there is also much to do in order to understand how the
system will be used in practice and to identify any concerns
associated with the organisation that will take over
operations.This paper focuses on the investment in preparation of
the people; in particular to understand and apply new Operational
Rules for using ERTMS. Banedanmark has used a methodical
approach to understand the system and deliver both technical and
non-technical skills in their safety and service critical roles. This
activity has included dealing with abnormal conditions and failure
states, as well as normal running conditions.There is one
perspective that interoperability and the associated Technical
Specifications of Interoperability (TSI) will provide an integrated
railway. However, introducing ERTMS to a railway that currently
does not have any form of Automatic Train Protection (ATP) is a
big change to the operational personnel. Convincing the internal
and external authorities that the first line was operationally ready
took more than gaining an Approval to Place Into Service for each
of the Infrastructure and Onboard systems. The National Safety
Authority did not need to assess the integrated digital railway;
however, there were many parties including the internal
programme and infrastructure teams and the Railway Undertaking
that were very keen to see evidence of the whole system being
safe in operations. Banedanmark and the Signalling Programme
management have embraced an approach of operational
integration through HF testing during Trial Running. The approach
utilises a new methodology called Human Component Mapping,
which shows how Operational Hazards, Operational Rules,
Training and the Testing performed are related to one another.
The Trial Running scenarios have led to important findings for
improvement and as positive evidence of safety management. A
feedback loop that includes technical project, operations, training
and rules has made valuable changes and additions that have
clarified how the system will work in service.This paper reflects on
some of the findings and observations associated with such items
as: level transitions; ETCS stop marker locations and use; axle
counter section reset; “regulated” actions facilitated by
technology; stopping at platforms; ERTMS Driver Machine
Interface fitment; human workload and the number and use of
screens in the control room; shunting and the use of a Hand Held
Terminal for possessions and temporary shunting areas. The
reader will gain an understanding of the contribution made using
detailed and systematic operational testing, using a Human
Factors focus and how early involvement is intended to set up a
delta approach, to enable the more efficient roll out of ERTMS to
other lines.